In her lecture, Dr. Hoffman presented the advantages and disadvantages of Title IX, a federal civil rights law implemented in the United States in 1972. Although Title IX was a policy against sex discrimination in education programs, and did not have a direct influence on athletics and sports, the increased participation of women in education programs resulted in an equal rise of athletic opportunities. However, no matter how drastically the numbers of female coaches and athletes grew, men's sports always attracted bigger budgets, better facilties and opportunities, and more media attention. Moreover, while in the United States, there was impressive improvement, Dr. Hoffman admitted that women's participation as coaches, managers or athletes around the world is nevertheless in a lamentable condition.
Mr. Lior Bartal introduced some facts and figures from the arena of Israeli sports, which totally confirmed Dr. Hoffman's arguments. Mr. Guy Azury suggested that there is a lot of potential for women in Israeli sports. However, both Mr. Azury and Ms. Bouskila agreed that Israel lacks funds and legislative policies, and is currently unable to promote sports culture in general.
Interview with Dr. Jennifer Hoffman:
Lecture by Dr. Hoffman and Panel Discussion (full):